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Stories from the archives

The Dalarna Museum's collections of objects, pictures, films and archival documents contain so much knowledge about various events associated with Dalarna, but also exciting personal history.

Stories from reality

Here are some of the stories that can be found in the archives.

Where and when would it burn next time?

A wave of arson paralyzed Falun in the autumn of 1975 and the spring of 1976. Wooden houses, caravans, houses under construction, motorcycles, storage and garbage rooms burned. The Falubans were scared.

Several young people were suspected of having started the fires and several of them confessed during very harsh police interrogations. But were they really guilty? There was no technical evidence. Much later in the documentary by Hannes Råstam "Why did they admit it?" it turned out that they were more or less forced to admit the arson.

The fire is loose

During the summer of 2018, Sweden burned as a result of the hot and dry summer. The debate about Sweden's capacity to cope with large forest fires flared up in newspapers, TV and on social media. Should we buy firebombers for Sweden? Have we saved too much on the fire service and the military? The question of how we can work with a modern and effective forest fire monitoring is not new, however, the conditions change over time. Lars Jönses' building antiquarian at Dalarna's museum has previously delved into the subject, which turned out to be significantly more multifaceted than he first could believe.

The fire towers in Dalarna

On occasional mountain peaks in the forest landscape, the hiker can still meet old fire towers. At best, it is possible to be captivated by miles of views of mountains and valleys. Unless the forest has grown taller than the tower. Several of the towers are well-preserved, even newly renovated. Others are dilapidated and can not get up. Many have been demolished. Nowhere else in Sweden were there so many fire towers as in Dalarna. Exactly how many are not known but it may have been between 40 and 50 pieces. In fact, the fire towers and the modern forest fire surveillance originated in northern Dalarna at the end of the 1800th century, but the history of the phenomenon with fire towers is generally missing in the literature.

Drought = forest fires

The parcel reforms at the end of the 1800th century loaded the forest with an economic value of completely different dimensions than before. At the same time, several years of severe drought and - as a letter in the mail - large forest fires occurred. To better protect themselves against the fires, the new large forest owners began to arrange surveillance from mountain tops to detect forest fires earlier. Initially, large pines were used as observation sites. One or possibly a couple of such strange pines are known today. To achieve a more permanent solution, a new phenomenon was borrowed that was in vogue: the lookout tower. This is how the first fire towers appeared on Orsa savings forest in 1889, and fairly soon Älvdalen's crown park and Älvdalen's savings forest followed. Several fire towers were equipped early with a telephone connection and gradually more fire towers were built, a telephone network grew out in the Swedish forest lands at the same time. The fire towers also became early tourist destinations. In fact, the fire towers had dual functions. On the one hand, the towers were a sign that the land (forest) gained economic value and the towers were part of the defense of this value. In part, it was about the country being simultaneously assigned a symbolic and cultural value. In that context, the towers would function as lookout towers from which the visitor would look out over their country and discover it and get to know it. Many travelogues tell of visits to fire towers and the views of the landscape. The author Karl-Erik Forsslund was one of the frequent visitors. In Noppikoski fire tower in Orsa finnmark, he was so captivated by the view that he wrote almost an entire book on the spot in the tower. More artistic personalities have been attracted by the fire brigade's solitary existence. In the tower on Stortjärnsåsen in Älvdalen, Alfred Backlund from Åsen sat and wrote and drew. In America, the author has Jack Kerouac in the short story Alone on a mountaintop depicted how he spent a summer as a firefighter on Mount Desolation Peak.

Defend the forest

Although the fire towers spread outside Dalarna, the pace of expansion was slow. At the end of the 1930s, several large forest companies and other organizations began to jointly build a system of fire towers that would cover the entire Swedish forest areas. New and more uniform iron towers became commonplace. In connection with the outbreak of war, the state took over the project to speed up the expansion. It was feared that acts of war over Sweden risked setting the forest on fire. In 1942, there were almost 300 towers in the so-called national network, of which 34 were in Dalarna. After the war, surveillance in the national network continued until the years around 1960, when firefighting was organized. After that, many towers were left to decay. Those who remain tell a strange story about the emergence of a system for discovering and defending the assets of the Swedish nation-state - its own country and the forest. It all started in northern Dalarna during a few dry summers in the late 1880s.

The map shows the fire towers in Dalarna that are listed
over national networks from 1939 and 1942, respectively.

The blue-marked fire towers are included in the confidential list drawn up by the Forest Fire Protection Committee in 1939. These towers are not included in the Air Protection Inspectorate's list from 1942. The figures indicate height above sea level / tower height in meters. (Even if the information is not correct, it has not changed.)

 A. Märraberg, Älvdalen 567/15

 B. Mossiberg, Älvdalen 724/15

 C. Anjosvarden, Våmhus 718/18                  

 D. Tandsjöhållan, Hamra 600/15

 E. Tackåsen, Hamra / 12        

 F. Björnberget, Ore 508 /                                

 G. Blåbärsåsen, Boda 494/15

 H. Finnbo, Bjursås 511/18

 I. Fransberget, St Kopparberg 397/18

 J. Logården, Vika 370 /

 K. Flenberget, Floda 440/18

 L. Högtjärnsklack, Garpenberg 273/15

 Red-marked fire towers on the Air Safety Inspectorate's list in 1942. Several of the towers also appear on the 1939 list. Order number according to the list. Year of construction is stated.

1. Himmeråsen, Idre 1941

2. Mickeltemplet, Särna 1935

3. Storhögen, Lima 1920

4. Horrmundberget, Lima 1914 (hut with cure)

5. Digerberget, Malung 1938

6. Gransjöberget, Äppelbo 1941

7. Myckelbergsklack, Malung 1920 (can be Mo-Myckelberg Klackarna?)

8. Bunkris, Älvdalen 1897

9. Navardalsbliket, Älvdalen 1900

10. Stortjärnsåsen, Älvdalen 1912

11.Norra Garberg, Mora 1925

12. Hykjeberget, Våmhus 1942

13. Korpimäki, Orsa 1942

14. Fryksås, Orsa 1935 (other information 1932)

15. Blidberget, Ore c: a 1937

16. Södra Vålberget, Rättvik 1942

17. Röjeråsen, Rättvik 1928

18. Säliträ, Sollerö 1941 (hut with cure)

19. Havskinnberget, Nås 1928

20. Älgberget, Leksand 1941

21. Högberget, Bjursås 1942

22. Kolarboberget, Aspeboda 1943

23. Himmelsberget, Svärdsjö 1942

24. Flyberget, Svärdsjö 1929 (replaced with a 3-legged iron tower around 1941)

25. Kullerberget, Säfsnäs 1932

26. Eskilsberget, Säfsnäs 1932

 27. Ulriksberg, Säfsnäs 1932

28. Skallberget, Grangärde 1940 (uncertain information?)

29. Svartberget, Norrbärke (no information on year)

30. Dragberget, Stora Tuna 1941

31. Rösåsen, Torsång 1935

33. Intrånget, Garpenberg (mining mine built in 1912)

34. Strandmora klint, By 1941

A tower has not been found: 32. Sörsjöberget, Hedemora 1935. It may possibly be an incorrect name, but I have not found the name Sörsjöberget in Hedemora. In Hedemora, on the other hand, there is the name Brandtornsberget (!), See the map. The name does not appear on any of the lists from 1939 or 1942, but must at the same time have arisen through the construction of a fire tower, which led to a change of name on the mountain in question.

Map of Dalarna with a selection of fire towers in northern Dalarna
in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

Basic map: Sven-Olof Gudmunds. Adapted by Lars Jönses 2011.

Tower at Älvdalen's Kronopark:
1.Rödberg 1896.
2. Bunkris 1896.
3. Mossiberg 1936 (replaced Rödberg's fire tower).

Tower on Älvdalen's savings forest:
4. Märraberg 1895 (cottage), 1902 (tower).
5. Stortjärnsåsen 1897 (cottage), 1912 (tower).
6. Navardalsbliket 1911.

Tower on Särna-Idre saving forest:
7. The Temple of St. Michael.

Tower at Orsa savings forest, Gävleborg County:
8. Buttons 1889.
9. Pilkalampinoppi 1889.
10. Kvarnberg 1889.
11. Hamra kyrktorn (1889).

Tower at Hamra Kronopark, Gävleborg County:
12. Tandsjöhållan 1895.
13. Fire tower at Ålderberg, Risberg around 1900. The tower may have been within Älvdalen's savings forest, but it is unclear who built the tower.

Remember the common man, in all his simplicity,
greatness, sorrow and joy.

Web exhibition arranged for Archives Day 2019 during
temat Forgot or hidden.

Johan Björnberg, Åg's mill 16/2 1949. Photographer: Sven Berg. Stora Enso's image archive.

Pigan Anna Andersdotter

 "… When she immediately mutilates the ax in the inhuman way… ”  Länsman J. Elzvik's claim 28 February 1862

Anna Andersdotter was born in 1822 in Gustafs, in 1848 she moved to Milsbo in Torsång parish where she worked as a maid. In Milsbo, her life would take a tragic turn.

When Anna Andersdotter understood that she was with children, it was not a happy moment, she was an unmarried maid, which came with few rights and not much financial security. Children outside of marriage were a disgrace that affected not only the woman but also her family and those she worked for.

On January 10, 1862, Anna gave birth to her child. She gave birth to it in solitude and in secret, having done everything in her power to conceal the pregnancy.

When it was discovered, the child was dead, the sheriff was called in and an investigation was started. The following information emerged during the investigation and is reported by the sheriff in his written statement to the District Court.

 "Barnet the child claims not to be full and dead at birth, when she immediately with the ax in the inhuman way mutilates the same, throws it on the fire, and burns it so that only an insignificant part of the fetus' intestines remained among the ashes in the stove, thereby no information, neither of the remains nor through witnesses could be extracted whether the fetus emerged alive or not… For such a reason I may claim his benevolent district court, that Anna Andersdotter, had to be sentenced to at least four years of penal servitude and partly except, by his assets replace witnesses and costs in the case. "

Swedish excerpt from Länsmans J. Elzvik's claim 28 February 1862 (acc. No. 1888: 1: 3)

What happened to Anna Andersdotter:

Anna was sentenced to two years' penal servitude to serve in Falun County Prison. On September 4, 1862, after two previous attempts, she took her own life by hanging. She was buried on September 10 in Kristine Parish's new cemetery in silence.

Burial for those who committed suicide was performed for a long time 'in silence,' without ceremony and without ringing the bell, as a form of punishment.

Two manor maids, FransEmma and Gyllen Britta. Lindesnäs Mill. Reproduction 1934. Stora Enso's picture archive. The people in the picture have no connection to the text

The house sister, the good angel of the housewives!

Home caregiver, home nurse, home carer - the profession has had many names and the tasks and orientation have changed in step with the development of society.

The profession and the name home caregiver originated in the 1940s. When the housewife in a family became ill or for some other reason needed support, the caregiver's task was to help with the practicalities of the home and take care of the children. Similar social work had previously been carried out by voluntary organizations and religious communities, but in 1944 social home help became state-subsidized. The idea was that everyone could get help from a caregiver if needed, but families with children and less well-off families were given priority as more affluent families often had a maid. In 1960, the state financial subsidy for domestic help was withdrawn, society changed and the needs looked different.

Between 1915 and 1974 there was a Homeschooling School in Uppsala, it was founded on the initiative of Manfred Bjökqvist and Ida Norrby. The head of the school was Anna Lutteman. There was a branch in Leksand, among other places, where a home sister's meeting was held on 3-6 July 1941.

From the prospectus for the school: "The homemaker is trained to enter the home in the event of a housewife's illness or other difficult circumstances and take over her work, as well as to serve the lonely, the powerless and the elderly".

In 2003, Dalarna's museum acquired clothes used by Gun Mittjas in his work as a Home Sister, in the gift you will also find documents about the school in Uppsala, photographs, an article from the Swedish journal etc.

Gunhild Segerstedt (married Mittjas) was born in 1916 in Stockholm, Solna and lived at her death in 2003 in Falun.

She was educated in 1940 at Uppsala Homeschooling School. The admission notification states that dresses, aprons and headscarves would be brought at the start of the training.

On December 1, 1941, Gun got a job through the Stockholm City Mission, with a monthly salary of SEK 75. Svenska Journalen visited her during the work, among other things at a rheumatologist on Kungsholmen and at a blind woman in Tallkrogen. There was time for both sock stuffing and piano playing between other household chores.


Those affected by the fire

"There is a lot of thought about how the fire broke out in Magasinet where there was no fire…" C. Bergsten 19 Oct. 1847

On October 18, 1847, a fire broke out in the district of Östanfors in the city of Falun.

The next day, at four o'clock in the afternoon, Christine Bergsten in Falun sat down and wrote a letter to her sister in Avesta. In it, she tells what it was like to experience one of the biggest fires in Falu's city history.

"Alas! What a terrible fire has ravaged our city this night. At half past nine tonight, wildfire broke out, in Kinnman's large grain warehouse - no one noticed the fire - a two tree, Kinnman's backyard burned… 9 farms have burned completely in ashes, of which 40 insured. The fire went all the way to Sister Charlotte, she picked all the things out on the hill - they feared for the Old Church… and it burned until 8 o'clock this morning… Mrs. Krej sat with her little ones at Fredrik Kronberg - Mrs. Carlsson fainted - they brought her to Sundvallsons… No man has slept a nap last night here in the city - a cot wife was pulled out in a cart two days after the birth - it blew so horribly that salvation was unthinkable - 5 small farms were ignited in an instant… the worst was for the painter Hesselius, his seven small children were some in whooping cough, they ran in only the linen cloth when the fire broke out, Teodor said. There is a lot of thought about how the fire broke out in Magasinet where there was no fire… ”

Swedish extract from C. Bergsten's letter (Acc no. 1965)

It was rumored that it was a murder fire, but an investigation showed that the fire was caused by sparks, which with the wind were transferred from some smelting huts by the river to a magazine on Slaggatan, which caught fire which then quickly spread further.

What happened to those affected by the fire:

The fire claimed no lives but resulted in about 270 people losing their homes. A fire committee was appointed to assess the losses incurred and to help the victims through fundraisers.


Assistant Physician CJ Hysing

"I now avoid being involved in dangers, although not so safe from malignant diseases... "  CJ Hysing October 24, 1808.

In war, it was not only the battles that claimed lives, often the soldiers were worse affected by disease. Field disease was a collective name for a group of diseases that were common during war, they were usually caused by poor hygiene. Rubella (dysentery), nerve fever, typhoid fever and chills (malaria)

During the Danish-Swedish war, about a hundred of the Valley Regiment's soldiers were buried in Boda, Värmland in 1808, all of whom had lost their lives in the field disease.

The valley regiment's assistant doctor CJ Hysing was in Värmland when he sent a letter to an acquaintance on 24 October 1808.

"Thanks a long time ago. I will let you know that I live and have health, even though I hang out with 120 sick people every day, there is plenty to do here but it is easy, when you have such a foreman as Dr. Kinmanson. The best man in the world. I now avoid being involved in dangers, although not so safe from malignant diseases but I save myself from them, in Carlstad they die terribly, thank God I escaped from there… We live and work together Doctor Kinmanson and I. I will now be a permanent member of the Regiment. He told me we will never part as long as I am at the Regiment… ”

Swedishized excerpt from CJ Hysing's letter. (Acc. No. 368: 1:22). 

What happened to CJ Hysing:

A memorial stone has been erected in Boda, Värmland over the soldiers from the Valley Regiment who are buried there. Of these, only two are mentioned by name, the lieutenant at the Life Battalion Johan Peter Lang and the regiment's assistant doctor Carl Johan Hysing.

"It was here his sigh it poured, It was here his life it closed, The people who bore our burdens, Long before our days. ” The inscription of the memorial stone.

Photographer: Otto Borell, taken in 1904
Who is he?
The soldier in this photograph is unknown. If anyone has information, please contact Dalarna's museum. The photograph has no connection to the text.

What have you found?

You went to an auction and called in a box like that with mixed small and good for a cheap sum. In it you will find old picture frames, some books, odd cutlery and small print. At the bottom of the box is a wooden box. You lift the box and open it. You look among the contents of small buttons, a counter book, some stamps, an aged brass key, pins, safety pins and other curiosities. Then you see a brooch-like object made of a material that you do not really recognize. You pick it up, turn, twist and feel and look a little closer. You can see that it is made of very thin sheer, slightly shiny brown threads. Some of the threads seem to have come off and spread out. This is how you recognize the texture and pull your fingers through your hair. What you found is a hair piece, a piece of jewelry made from human hair.

When, who and why?

Hair work began around the 1820s, even though the art form was older than that, so it took a new path when the years of distress affected small villages in Dalarna, mainly in the village of Våmhus, Mora. The village's younger women started making hair jewelry. 1826 it is mentioned that 16 pcs. girls leave the village for business trips / work hikes in mainly Russia and Finland. It does not say what it is for a business trip, but you can guess that it was to sell hair work. A few years later, it is confirmed in writings that hair balls from Våmhus go out to Europe to sell self-made hair jewelry. The hairpins were dressed in sock suits to be easily recognized and not mistaken for, for example, vagrants who at that time were punishable in certain places.

How did it start?

According to one of several theories, the idea for hair work began with wigmakers and was picked up by hills who then spun on it. The hair was tied or braided and has some in common with lace making. They made brooches, watch chains, bracelets, necklaces, rings and even hairpins and braids (the latter two, with a different technique). Whatever it started once, hair jewelry became popular. A successful hairdresser was Martis Karin Ersdotter, whose entrepreneurship led her to make hair jewelry for Queen Victoria of Great Britain.

The heyday of hair work lasted just over 80 years from the beginning of the 1830s until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. Ten years later, the hair ornaments had completely lost value and many were destroyed together with the manufacturing tools.

The art form is still alive

There are still a lot of people who have not heard of hair jewelry. Happily enough, there are still some active hairballs today (mainly in Våmhus where the tradition strongly lives on), however, the hairballs are today more resident in their business.

Letter from ALBoxsell to Älvdalen in 1923.

Five years later he returned to Sweden.

Duluth, Minnesota. Oct. 25th 1923.

Härade wänn i Norden!

It's been a long time since I heard anything from you. I have written 2 letters to you. One on May 15 and one on July 2. Have you got them. Or are they lost under the way to you. Have you received them and written answers, they are lost on the way here…

I have been working on the railway this summer. 8 hours a day 40 cents an hour. It's good here in America… only workers agree they can do great things. There is plenty of work here now. And good pay too, wanligt work is 4.50 and 5 dollars a day in the city. For deforestation camps are paid 50-55, 60-65 dollars a month 26 days and free housing and food. And that is to put at the set table warje goal all conceivable dishes. It's different than he was in Sweden frying bottles and potatoes it was company guy's food.

It is sad for me I do not receive any letters from Sweden… Should this letter meet you wrote to me that I will hear how it is upi Dalom…

Respectfully
AL Boxsell
Windsor Hotel.

Duluth, Minnesota 


Letter from John Jansson to the parents-in-law in Borlänge in 1898.

Chicago on Oct 2 1898

Dear father-in-law and mother-in-law!

I'm well ungrateful who does not write anything even though we have received so many letters, but I have not thought I had anything interesting to write about. We are healthy. I work as a cutter for a tailoring company now, it is smoother with work and I do not have to work as hard now as when I sewed.

We have had a good summer here this year, just warm enough, only a little more rain than usual, the farmers have had a better harvest this year than they had in several years before, when it was too dry.

Uncle Carl disappeared completely unexpectedly on May 28, he had been ill for some time before so the doctor had advised him to travel to Sweden or some place where he could rest from his work. But he did not want to, but continued to work until the 28th when he had been at the bank and withdrawn 160 dollars and been at work at two o'clock, that was the last thing anyone saw him.

The doctor said he had not slept 48 hours in the last three weeks so his nervous system was completely relaxed. His portrait was sent to all the police departments in this country and Canada that they would find him, but no one had seen or heard anything from him until last month when his aunt received a letter from him, he was then at the diamond mines in Southern Africa.           

He wrote that he woke up as if from a slumber and was on board a steamer in the middle of the ocean and with a ticket in his pocket on the Transvaal Southern Africa and a rather meager travel bag, he had not the slightest idea where he was from where he was in Worcester and until he was out on the Atlantic, he walked 60 Eng. miles the first day he was in Africa…

I must now end my slarf for this time with a dear greeting to you all,
your son-in-law
John


Letter from Johan in Omaha to his parents in Persbo in 1885.

Omaha, June 22, 1885

Beloved parents and siblings!

After a long and arduous journey, I have now finally reached my destination. I came here yesterday at 10 am… I can therefore not talk about anything other than how the trip went. We went on board in Liverpool on the 5th of June, the first and second day the weather was beautiful but on the evening of the third day it started to get stormy and it increased during the night so that the next morning the waves washed free over the deck and it lasted for three days. nights were unbearably long and boring. For staying on the deck was almost impossible and being down in the huts was completely impossible, on the deck the water was flushed over especially in the bow where we were supposed to be, the stern was closed for 1st and 2nd class, down in the huts one lay on top of the other o vomited etc. so that there was a heat o splash that was awful.

For my part, I was not seasick so I did not have to vomit or lie down, but I can not say that I was healthy and morbid because not being able to sleep properly and not being able to eat anything significant in 13 to 14 days then you know you are alive. As for the food as besty, I do not want to say that whoever could eat it needed to starve because it was not scarce…

Breakfast always consisted of coffee, fresh wheat bread and butter. Coffee not too strong, bread somewhat, butter was bad.

Dinner soup, meat, potatoes, sometimes fish and rice, on Sundays also pudding. The soup had a surprising resemblance to scouring water both in appearance and strength, the meat could probably have been eaten if it had been cooked, the potatoes were edible.

Evening tea, bread, jaws and butter. The tea had the same property as the coffee.

My travel party which consisted of about 700 people was of all kinds of peoples and nations, where you could hear all sorts of languages, everyone else went on but the Irish were unbearable…

So it was finally striped on Wednesday the 17th when at noon we began to see land looming on the horizon, this was by all a long-awaited sight and greeted with great joy. Kl. 8 a.m. we anchored at the port of New York, we had to lie on the boat overnight, in the morning our things were to be searched and then we were taken by boat to Castlegarden where everyone was to be called and noted we also got our railway tickets and so we were taken by boat to the station. at 6 a.m. the train set off for Chicago and there we arrived at 20 pm, most of us were in company but then the party decreased so that when I came to Omaha I had only one of my travel companions left.

It was probably a little strange when I stopped at the station here because no matter how I looked at everyone, I saw no one known. I did not hear anyone who spoke Swedish either…

However, you do not have to be anxious because I am then at least healthy and so far there is no danger so much to work I will probably get so that I give birth… I now have nothing further to write if I can therefore end with many greetings to friends and acquaintances but most and most cordially you are, however, greeted by your son Johan.


Letter from Eric Sjöberg to his brother Mats in Bjursås, year unknown.

Wheaton on October 2nd

Brother Matts

I now get permission to take the time to write some to you, and let you know that I am alive, and in good health and well, and I wish you the same, I must tell you a little about how I have been since I last wrote to you , last winters I cut wood for about three months…

so anna wrote to me and wanted me to travel to them, and stay there until the first of May, then they would pay me 50 daler, so then I went and went there, and was there for two months, but then her husband stayed so difficult and squeamish and mean, so I could not be there, I could not do anything to please him, so I stopped and went into town, and then he gave me ten dollars, they were all.

Anders he was there too and worked for another farmer for just the food, and he did not have as much money as a cent, so I took him up to the brickyard, and paid for his journey, and lent him money, besides, so he owed me thirty dollars, but I've got most of it afet again. We were there and worked for three months, then steady hansä and lisl daniel came from slättberga, and a boy from rexbo, named steady alfred, they traveled to me, and so we all made company here to Wheaton in the threshing floor, so we have it quite nice when we are so many bjusmasar together. Anders, he does not work at the same threshing machine as us, he is with a machine where he has been before.

Anders he is as healthy as anyone so it's not worth it you feel sorry for him, but he's awful to drink, so he super up everything he deserves, but the time he was up at the brickyard he got fat, and lost weight new clothes and looked like a gentleman. When the threshing floor is over, we all join the forest. I will also write more next time. Write answers quickly, and talk about many news, and address the letter to Wrenshall my old place. Greet all the bear girls who are unmarried from us. Talk about how it is possible for Gustaf Nilson to be married. Talk about everything new that has happened around bjus.

Drawn by Eric Sjöberg.

Health father and mother.


Letter from John Unger to his brother Flygar Hans Andersson in Norrboda in 1889.

St Francis. March 9, 1889.

Wishful. My beloved brother, Hans Andersson, for the first time, I must thank you for this letter that I received in the timber forest a long time ago, I came home from the forest on the 7th of this, I was away for twelve weeks, I had $ 24 for the moon and the food. This winter there have been bad profits here, because there has been a lack of snow, we have summer here now so there is no snow.

I have sawn timber this winter, my friend has been an American who has only been an American in the fight for the bolack, or barrack in Swedish, so I have been Swedish together but I have not been a reader, here you probably need to be morse when to be out on merit but it is difficult to speak English, I to mention that we are all in good health and feel pretty good here we have not suffered any need for the food since we came here…

I hear that you want to know if I lease any land, I do not want any land on lease but there is plenty of stuff like this, here they are not so afraid of the land pieces as in Sweden here it goes hand in hand to have chalk without property here there is that to cut hay as much as you want without and nothing is that expensive to buy hay for a cow here as it was in Sweden…

I must now stop my writing for this time with a dear greeting my dear brother and sister-in-law lef well is my wish. Ajö for this time Draws

John Unger    

Answers are expected soon